February 2018

In the Month of February, following topics were covered in Discovery Science Center of Michigan Valley Education:

How Things Work Discussion Series


How Things Work Discussion Series : This month A discussion series was arranged in the Weekend classes for “How Things Work?”

  1. Television: TV Cameras, Capture the images and convert them in electromagnetic waves. These are then transmitted via transmitter or cable or satellite. The receivers or Antenna receive those waves and then in players we can see them. Inside the player the CRT fires electronic guns of RGB. The phosper quotes on screen get illuminated by the electromagnetic waves and then the image is produced via the shadow masks. The Pixels and RGB was also explained.

Next was the It was explained as how different types of TV screens work.
CRT TV, LED TV, LCD, PLASMA, TFT, HD : what is the technology of each of them and how they convert                                       electromagnetic waves to Images are explained.
Plasma, there are Gases which are sand witched between two peices of glass. The electromagnetic waves converts these              glasses in plasma state and the ultra violet rays illuminates those gases.
IN LED and LCD, the diffraction properties of light work. The difference is that in LCD, there is one large lamp and in                LCD there are number of LED bulbs placed at the edge of television.
In HD the pixels are further reduced in size to bring more clarity of images.

  1. How Clocks Work: The concept of Time as a perception was discussed. A history of efforts of Measurement of time was explained. The Pendulum Clocks are explained as to how Potential energy is converted to Kinetic Energy. It was explained as to how gears transfer mechanical energy in a machine. It was explained by quartz clock work and what is the importance of quartz in the ticking of clocks. The clock parts are explained:
  • Escapement or Anchor
  • A gear Train to regulate the speed of power to be used in pendulum
  • A set of time keeping Gears
  • Pendulum
  • A dial or clock face

Finally the atomic clocks are explained and the importance of atomic clock for internet, GPS and interplanetary movement

  1. How Ships Work: In ships the following was explained:
    1. How boats and ships float
    2. Positive Negative and neutral Buoyancy
    3. Archimedes Principle was explained to test floating of Ships
    4. The center of Gravity in Boats was explained
    5. Newton’s law of Motion to explain how Boats move. Force to Move, More acceleration give more force to move and how the ships/boats need backward push to move ahead.

Navigation Technology of the ships are explained, historically:

  • Stick Charts
  • Kamal
  • Cross Staff
  • Astrolabe
  • Chronometer
  • Icelandic Spar
  • Chiplog
  • Mercator Projection
  • Nautical Charts
  • GPS


  1. How Telephone Works:

The working of telegraph was explained. And the Morse cord was explained

Telephone works as Electromagnetic waves. Inside telephones there are Microphones and loud speakers. There is a diaphragm which is a flexible plastic, with an iron coil attached to it and magnet nearby. There are input and output circuits. When we talk sound energy make diaphragm to vibrate moving the coil near it. From the magnet the electromagnetic currents are generated, which travel through output copper wire of phone. Then it travels via fibre optics to telephone exchange, which routes the call. Earlier sockets were inserted into wooden boards. Now a days they are electromagnetic and switches automatically using relays. The switch and circuit mechanism was explained. The mobile towers use technologies of telephone radios and computers. These work as two way radio transmission from base station to base station. GSM and CDMA technologies are explained. Radio waves have different frequencies and 2G, 3G and 4G protocols are used. Finally, cellular phones were explained as to how city is divided into cells with base stations and Towers and how the calls are made and transferred from one cell to other.

Movie of the Month:

  1. Movie on Acids and Bases


  1. Python:
    1. Calendar Program in Python for single month and Multiple Month
    2. Regular Expression Search and Replace, Modifier-Option Flags; Patterns; `


    1. Program on Crazy Horse
    2. Program on Dancing Dino
    3. Program on Crazy Rambo


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